Some random terms that I have gained in my vocabulary courtesy of marriage to a biker:
A - Avid -some kind of brakes - Avid Juicy 9
B - Bontrager - parts maker
B - Bikes Direct - on-line, inexpensive, components galore.
C - Component = parts "I need to upgrade some components." "He switched the good components from the old frame to the new frame."
C - Cross Max Wheels - super light, super stiff wheels, also super expensive. Available in 26 and 29 inches.
C - Cassette - the thing that the chain goes around on the rear wheel - helps change gears. Not found on a singlespeed. This can be replaced with a lighter one to reduce the weight of the bike.
D - Deralleur - also known as the shifter-changes gears. There is a front and a rear.
D - Disc Brakes - instead of squeezing the wheel like the "oldfashioned rim brakes" (think of your Huffy pastel pink 10-speed brakes) this disk is near the hub of the wheel and is better than rim brakes - though usually heavier. Allows for better stopping power, more control, and braking when it is wet.
E - Ellsworth - an expensive bike, usually riden by a guy who is over 40 because he can afford it.
E - Ergon Grips - "must haves" - basically hand grips with a rest on it so you don't have to wrap your fingers around the handlebar. One of his favorite bloggers is a sales rep for Ergon, Jeff Kerkove.
F - Fox - they make the best (expensive) front forks - http://www.foxracingshox.com/fox_bicycle/bike_index.htm
F - Fork - this is the thing in the front of the bike that goes down from the handlebars and connects to the wheel. There are rigid forks that don't have shocks and there are one-sided forks - made by Cannondale.
G - Gears - 1=singlespeed
H - Hub - can be a rather expensive component. Chris King Hub
H - Headest
K - Kerkove, Jeff http://www.jeffkerkove.net/
M - mtbr.com - forums about bikes, bikers, biking, you name it.
M - Moots - if he says he wants a Moots - tell him you want one too.
N - "A niner" --29 inch wheeled mountain bike.
P - Performance Bike - cheap components and clothes, on-line dealer
R - Rotating weight - this is when your husband says "rotating weight is 7 times heavier than regular weight" and you think--does that mean that the 20 grams that you want to loose by replacing the cassette is more effective than eating 3 less pieces of lasagna?
S - Singlespeed - one geared bike. Good for commuting, toughness, and looking cool.
T - Travel - the amount of travel the bike has determines how squishy the ride is. The more, the softer the ride.
V - velo = bike in French. On fait du velo? Wanna ride some bike?